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Lithium ion batteries are expected to work normally at low temperatures
- Jul 03, 2018 -

It is well known that under 10 degrees Celsius, traditional lithium-ion batteries cannot achieve fast charging, which is a serious problem for electric vehicles in many areas. In Scandinavia, electric cars must be equipped with a small heater in the battery box, and the heating device in California is significantly larger than in Minnesota and Canada.

The team led by Chao-Yang Wang, head of the Electrochemical Engine Research Center at Penn State University, has developed a new type of battery that can avoid the loss of energy at freezing temperatures by self-heating. It works on the same principle as a fast charging station, but it allows the battery to charge in 15 minutes even when the ambient temperature drops to minus 43 degrees Celsius.

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The battery connects one end of a piece of nickel foil to the negative pole and the other end extends beyond the battery to form a third pole port. When the temperature sensor connected to the switch detects that the ambient temperature has dropped to about 25 degrees Celsius, the switch will control the current through the nickel chip. Resistance to resistance causes the nickel plate to heat up and provide the battery with temperature from the inside.

Once the temperature rises above room temperature, the battery-equipped switch automatically shifts the current to directly charge the battery. Wang claims that this means that we don't need to replace the charging station, we only need to control the heating and charging in the battery, no need to adjust the charging device.

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In a report published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, researchers claim that their prototype battery can withstand 4,500 cycles of 15 minutes of fast charging at 0 degrees Celsius, with an energy loss of only 20%. This means that the battery life will reach 12.5 years. In contrast, a conventional battery with 20% energy loss can only withstand 50 charges.

Researchers say this innovative technology also makes batteries safer. Charging a lithium-ion battery at 10 degrees Celsius causes lithium ions to collect on the anode surface, which can create risks such as short circuits, heat loss, and ignition. Researchers say this unique fast charging method allows manufacturers to create smaller, safer and safer batteries for electric vehicles.