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What Is Solar Charge Controller?
- Aug 15, 2018 -

The solar charge control system consists of solar panels, batteries, controllers and loads.

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Solar controller is used to control photovoltaic panels to charge the battery, and to provide load control voltage for voltage sensitive devices. It regulates and controls the charging and discharging conditions of the battery, and controls the power output of the solar cell module and the battery to the load according to the power demand of the load, which is the core control part of the whole photovoltaic power supply system. [1] it is designed for remote area power supply system of communication or monitoring equipment. The charge control and load control voltage of the controller are fully adjustable, and the battery voltage, load voltage, solar array voltage, charging current and load current can be displayed. 

Almost all solar power systems powered by batteries need a solar charging and discharging controller. The function of the solar charging and discharging controller is to adjust the power transferred from the solar panel to the battery. Battery overshoot, at least dramatically reduces battery life, from the worst to the worst until it can't be used properly. 

Solar controller is a microcomputer data acquisition and monitoring control system, which uses high speed CPU microprocessor and high precision A / D ADC. It can not only collect the current working state of PV system quickly and real-time, but also obtain the working information of PV station at any time. It can also accumulate the historical data of PV station in detail, which provides an accurate and sufficient basis for evaluating the rationality of PV system design and testing the reliability of system components quality. In addition, the solar controller also has the function of serial communication data transmission, which can centralize the management and remote control of multiple photovoltaic sub-stations.

The solar controller usually has 6 nominal voltage levels: 12V, 24V, 48V, 110V, 220V and 600V.

At present, the controller is developing towards multi-function, which has the trend of integrating the traditional control part, inverter and monitoring system.


The basic function of the solar charge and discharge controller is to control the battery voltage and open the circuit, and when the battery voltage rises to a certain extent, stop charging the battery. Old-fashioned controllers mechanically turn on or off the control circuit, stop or start the power supply to the battery.

In most PV systems, controllers are used to protect batteries from overcharging or overdischarging. Overcharge may cause the electrolyte in the battery to vaporize and cause failure, while overdischarge of the battery may cause premature failure of the battery. Overcharge and overdischarge may damage the load. Therefore, the controller is one of the core components of the photovoltaic power generation system, and is also the main part of the balance system BOS (Balance of System).

In short, the functions of solar controllers can be divided into:

1, power regulation function;

2. Communication Function: 1 Simple Indicator Function 2 Protocol Communication Function such as RS485 Ethernet, Wireless and other forms of background management;

3, perfect protection function: electrical protection reverse connection, short circuit, overcurrent and so on.

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