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Energy Storage Battery Technology Helps New Generation Of Power System Development
- May 09, 2018 -

New energy storage battery technology has become a hot spot in current R&D and technological frontiers


Existing commercial battery technologies include lithium-ion batteries, lead-acid batteries, nickel-hydrogen/cadmium batteries, and sodium-sulfur/nickel batteries. These battery technologies are mature and widely used in electric vehicles, mobile phones, notebook computers, and wind farm energy storage systems. Power grid FM, distributed power and micro-grid and other fields.


Currently, there are more than 30 new types of energy storage batteries in commercial and demonstration applications, laboratory R&D, or conceptual design stages. Among them, battery technologies that have been demonstrated include ternary lithium-ion batteries, all-vanadium/zinc bromide flow batteries, lead carbon batteries, supercapacitor batteries, etc.; battery technologies in the laboratory R&D stage include graphene/lithium-sulfur/lithium Air and other new generation lithium ion batteries, semi-solid/non-film and other new generation flow batteries, aluminum/zinc and other metal air batteries, sodium/magnesium ion batteries, liquid metal batteries, etc.; graphene super capacitor batteries, dual carbon batteries, nano Microbatteries, organic batteries, etc. are in the conceptual design stage. These new energy storage battery technologies have become the hot spots and frontiers of current research and development. It is expected that the performance of energy storage batteries will be greatly improved in the future, and large-scale applications of energy storage batteries will be promoted.


The semi-solid flow battery combines the advantages of lithium-ion and flow batteries to achieve a qualitative leap in improving battery power and power density, reducing volume, and reducing costs. At present, MIT has developed a semi-solid flow battery with an energy density of 250 watt-hours/kg, which is more than 10 times higher than current flow batteries. The cost is only 100 to 250 US$/kWh, which is 70% lower than the current level. the above. Graphene Lithium Batteries are highly conductive, ultra-lightweight graphene materials that utilize lithium ions for fast shuttle motion between the surface of the graphene and the electrodes, reducing the charging time to minutes. The Graphenano company and the University of Corvard in Spain jointly developed the world's first electric automotive graphene battery, which takes only 8 minutes to recharge and has a cruising range of 1,000 kilometers. The theoretical energy density of lithium-sulfur batteries can reach 2600 watt-hours/kg, which is 8 to 10 times that of traditional lithium-ion batteries. The energy density of lithium-sulfur batteries developed by Polyplus of the United States and the Fraunhofer Institute for Materials and Beams in Germany has reached 420 watt-hours/kg and 600 watt-hours/kg. Aluminum air batteries use air as the positive electrode and aluminum as the negative electrode. The chemical reaction between aluminum and oxygen releases energy. The energy density of the battery can theoretically reach 8100 watt-hours/kg, which is the highest among all battery energy densities. Israel's Phinergy has developed aluminum air test batteries for use in powered vehicles, with an energy density of more than 800 watt-hours/kg and a cruising range of 1,600 kilometers.

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Lithium ion & flow battery is expected to become the mainstream technology for future energy storage batteries


Lithium-ion batteries are currently the most concerned energy storage technologies. According to the statistics of the US Department of Energy, by the end of 2016, the United States, Japan, the European Union, and China accounted for 94% of the world's total installed capacity. Among them, the number of demonstration demonstrations for electrochemical energy storage is close to 100. Items, the number of projects accounted for 53%. In the number of electrochemical energy storage demonstration projects, lithium-ion batteries accounted for the highest proportion, reaching 48%, ranking highest in battery energy storage. In the future, the new generation of lithium-ion battery technology will bring about fundamental changes in battery safety, energy density, charging time and other indicators. It has a wide range of applications in areas such as power peaking and frequency modulation, electric vehicles, and commercial/home energy storage systems. prospect.


The flow battery has the advantages of large capacity and low cost, and it can build an economical and reliable energy storage power station with a capacity of more than 100,000 kilowatts, which provides important support for improving the dispatch flexibility of power grids and large-scale development of new energy sources. Putting into operation energy storage power stations in large energy bases, central substations, load centers, and power grids, etc., can provide various auxiliary services such as peaking, frequency regulation, pressure regulation, etc. The grid emergency plays an important role. The deployment of a large-capacity liquid energy storage system at a new energy power generation base can effectively suppress the fluctuation of new energy power generation output, flexibly track the power generation planning curve, and promote new energy power generation as the main power supply.


Judging from the judgments of international agencies such as the Renewable Energy Agency and the International Energy Agency, Lithium-ion and flow batteries will break through the technical bottleneck around 2030, and the overall performance of the battery will be fully enhanced. This will become the mainstream battery technology with the most commercial prospects, accounting for global The proportion of energy storage battery capacity will exceed 50%, which greatly promotes the development and application of energy storage battery technology.

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Innovative development of multiple energy storage battery technologies will play an important role in a new generation of power systems


With the development and wide application of various battery energy storage technologies in the future, energy storage batteries will be applied to the various stages of power system transmission, transmission, distribution, use, and adjustment, which may change the existing power system production, transportation, and use methods. To help transform the traditional power system to a new generation of power systems that are “widely interconnected, intelligently interactive, flexible and flexible, and safe and controllable”.


On the power generation side, lithium-ion batteries and flow batteries will become important energy storage technologies to support the large-scale development of new energy, and promote new energy to become the main power source for the new generation of power systems. As of the end of 2017, the combined capacity of wind power and photovoltaic power generation in China reached 293 million kilowatts, accounting for 17% of the total installed capacity of power. In the future, China's new energy will also accelerate large-scale development. According to the national non-fossil energy development goals and carbon emission reduction targets, considering the hydropower and nuclear power installations slowing down, the total installed capacity of new energy sources such as wind power and photovoltaic power generation at the end of 2030 should reach at least 880 million kilowatts, which is at the end of 2016. The installed capacity of new energy power generation is about 3.5 times, accounting for about 30% of the total installed power capacity. In the future, access to a high proportion of new energy will become the main feature of China’s new generation of power systems. How to control the large-scale new energy grid-connected operation needs to significantly increase the flexibility of the power system. Lithium-ion batteries and flow batteries will achieve further breakthroughs in short-term high-power output and fast response speeds, effectively suppressing large-scale new energy power generation output fluctuations, and flexibly tracking the output curve of power generation plans to achieve significant and measurable new energy power plants. And controllable.


On the grid side, the flow battery is favored as a large-capacity grid-level energy storage power station, which can provide a variety of auxiliary services for the grid, and enhance the flexibility and security of the grid dispatch control. The flow battery has the technical advantages of long cycle life, large capacity, fast response, and high safety. It is expected to replace the currently-operated lithium-ion energy storage power station and develop into a grid-level energy storage power station with 100,000 kilowatts or more. It provides various auxiliary services such as peaking, frequency modulation, pressure regulation, etc., and plays a role in generating electricity imbalances and responding to grid emergency. At the same time, the construction of large-capacity liquid energy storage power stations in areas surrounding large-scale energy bases, central substations, load centers, and power grid ends can fully play an important role in different regional geothermal energy storage stations in relieving local grid obstruction and promoting power balance.


On the user side, lithium-ion batteries will become the mainstream technology for promoting the development of distributed small-scale battery energy storage systems. The new batteries can be used as a complement to lithium-ion batteries. In the future, lithium-ion battery technology will further break through, energy density will approach 600 watt-hours/kg, endurance capacity exceeds 500 kilometers, about double the current level; charging time will be reduced to less than 30 minutes, and service life will reach 15 years, meeting small-scale distribution Energy storage, mobile power performance requirements. The new battery can be used together with lithium-ion batteries to achieve fusion applications in areas such as electric vehicles and homes. In the future, distributed optical storage applications have a great potential. Some users with small power demand and weak dependence on the power grid may choose to use distributed optical storage systems for independent power supply in the interest of economic benefits. Users in the United States and Hawaii have already had a choice. Distributed optical storage + grid "power supply mode.