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Classification And Function Of Solar Controller
- Aug 28, 2018 -

Classification


The popular solar controllers on the market mainly include ordinary solar controller, PWM solar controller and MPPT solar controller.


Ordinary solar controllers are the first generation of technology. They work by hanging the output of solar panels directly to the battery port and disconnecting when the battery is full. Because of the internal resistance of the battery, it is difficult to fill the battery, and the solar panels are not fully utilized. The charging conversion efficiency is only 70-76%. Has been eliminated by the market, basically few people use.


PWM solar controller is the second generation of technology, the market is the most, the working mode is the use of PWM control mode, compared with ordinary solar controller, has made a lot of progress, can solve the problem of battery discontent, charging conversion efficiency is 75-80%, but solar panels are not fully utilized.


MPPT solar controller is the third generation of technology, the most high-end solar controller. MPPT solar controller is a kind of solar controller with the function of Maximum Power Point Tracking. It is an upgraded product of PWM solar controller. MPPT solar controller can detect the voltage and current of solar panels in real time and track the maximum power continuously (P = U * I), so that the system can always be used. The MPPT tracking efficiency is 99%, and the power generation efficiency of the whole system is as high as 97%. And the battery has excellent management. It is divided into MPPT charging, constant voltage charging and constant voltage floating charging. With the development of technology and energy saving, the trend of MPPT solar controller replacing the traditional PWM solar controller is irreversible. 


Function


The new solar controller has the following main functions:


1. Overcharge protection: when the charging voltage is higher than the protection voltage, the battery is automatically turned off to charge. After that, when the voltage drops to the maintenance voltage, the battery enters the floating charge state, and when the voltage is lower than the recovery voltage, the floating charge closes and enters the uniform charge state.


2. Over-discharge protection: when the battery voltage is lower than the protection voltage, the controller automatically shuts down the output to protect the battery from damage; when the battery is recharged, it can automatically restore power supply.


3. Load Overcurrent and Short Circuit Protection: When the load current exceeds 10A or the load is short-circuited, the fuse wire is fused and can be used after replacing.


4, overvoltage protection: when the voltage is too high, it will turn off the output automatically and protect the electrical appliances from damage.


5, with anti charging function: using Schottky diode to prevent battery charging to solar cells.


6. Lightning Protection Function: When lightning strikes, varistors can prevent lightning strikes and protect the controller from damage.


7. Solar cell inversion protection: solar cell "+" - "polarity inversion, after correction can continue to use.


8. Battery Back-connection Protection: Battery'+', -'Polarity Back-connection, Fuse Wire Fuse, Replacement can continue to use


9. Battery Open Circuit Protection: In case the battery is open, if the solar cell is charged normally, the controller will limit the voltage at both ends of the load to ensure that the load is not damaged. If the battery is not charged at night or when the solar cell is not charged, the controller will not have any action because it can not get electricity.


10. It has the function of temperature compensation. 


11. Self-inspection: when the controller is affected by natural factors or inappropriate human operation, can let the controller self-inspection, let people know whether the controller is intact, reduce a lot of unnecessary man-hour, to win the project quality and time limit to create conditions.


12. Recovery interval: Recovery interval for overcharge or overdischarge protection to avoid load bucket caused by line resistance or battery self-recovery characteristics.


13. Temperature Compensation: Monitor the temperature of the battery, correct the charging and discharging value, let the battery work in an ideal state.


14. Light control: mostly used in automatic lamps and lanterns, when the environment is bright enough, the controller will automatically turn off the load output; and when the environment is dark, it will automatically turn on the load to achieve automatic control functions.

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