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What is a photovoltaic controller?
- Jun 27, 2018 -

The photovoltaic controller is an automatic control device used in a photovoltaic power generation system to control the charging of a plurality of photovoltaic cell arrays to a battery and to supply a battery to a photovoltaic inverter load.

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Photovoltaic controller uses high-speed CPU microprocessors and high-precision A/D analog-to-digital converters. It is a microcomputer data acquisition and monitoring control system. The current working state of PV system can be collected quickly and real-time, the work information of the photovoltaic power station can be obtained at any time, and the historical data of the photovoltaic power station can be accumulated in detail, which provides the accurate and charged basis for evaluating the rationality of the design of the photovoltaic power generation system and the reliability of the inspection system components.

Five functions of photovoltaic controller

1. High voltage (HVD) disconnection and recovery function: The controller should have the function of input high voltage disconnect and restore connection.

2. Undervoltage (LVG) alarm and recovery function: When the battery voltage drops to the under voltage alarm point, the controller should be able to automatically send out the sound and light alarm signal.

3. Low voltage (LVD) disconnect and resume function: This feature prevents overdischarge of the battery. By connecting a load via a relay or electronic switch, the load can be automatically switched off at a given low pressure point. When the voltage rises to the safe operating range, the load will automatically re-access or require manual re-entry. Sometimes, low pressure alarms are used instead of automatic shutoffs.

4. Protection function:

1) Circuit protection against any load short circuit.

2) Circuit protection to prevent internal short circuit of charge controller.

3) Prevent reverse storage protection of the battery at night by solar modules.

4) Circuit protection against polarity reversal of load, solar module or battery.

5) Prevention of breakdown protection due to lightning strikes in multi-zones.

5. Temperature compensation function: When the battery temperature is lower than 25°C, the battery should require a higher charging voltage in order to complete the charging process. Conversely, above this temperature, the battery requires a lower charging voltage.