The detection of solar wafers includes the following aspects:
• Electrical performance testing, including conductivity type, resistivity, and minority lifetime.
• Impurity Analysis: Impurity Oxygen, Carbon Content Analysis.
• Shape detection: Width, thickness, TTV, verticality, warpage, and chamfer.
• Appearance detection: cracks (infrared flaw detection), cracks, perforations, microcrystals, line marks, detachment, chipping, and missing corners.
It is feasible to integrate all the above detection functions on one set of equipment to form a complete system.
To help reduce costs, solar panel manufacturers are increasingly using robots.
Robots equipped with visual and force detection functions help to reduce the damage rate of individual photovoltaic cells during operation.
After the energy crisis of the 1970s, Americans for the first time had the idea of using solar energy directly to replace coal and oil. After decades of development, solar panels have finally become a major player in the market.
Photovoltaic (PV) panels that generate electricity directly from sunlight have long been specialized supplies for satellite and daylight calculators. However, now they are increasingly being used to provide energy for homes and businesses.
At present, Germany is in the leading position in the application of photovoltaic cells, and photovoltaic power generation accounts for half of the world's total. However, in this rapidly developing energy technology, many other countries are catching up quickly, including the United States and China.
Since 2002, the global demand for photovoltaic products has grown by approximately 50% annually. According to reports, in 2007, sales of PV equipment manufacturers reached 12.9 billion U.S. dollars. This figure is expected to exceed 32 billion U.S. dollars by 2012.
Unfortunately, the manufacturing costs of photovoltaic panels are still high, making the unit cost of solar energy much higher than that of ordinary energy sources.
For example, a semiconductor wafer that actually undertakes energy conversion is the core of many battery cells that make up a monocrystalline silicon panel and it requires a large amount of expensive materials, including high-grade silicon. Combining these battery cells into a unitary battery board and making it able to withstand the harsh conditions of use for many years, such a process is not only extremely demanding but also requires a lot of manpower.
To help reduce these costs, manufacturers are increasingly using robots to automate as much as possible, including taking monolithic wafers and securing finished panels for transportation.
For example, each solar panel consists of many tiny photovoltaic cells, all of which are connected together by a cascade process. If the cells constituting the solar panel are not properly seated and connected, there is a significant effect on the efficiency of the panel. By adopting robots, manufacturers ensure that their products can achieve the desired performance in outdoor use.
Also, the large number of battery cells that make up a solar panel each require high-cost processing—grinding, cutting, marking, tandem connection, and inspection—and these operations are usually performed in an automated workshop that requires continuous control, and this is another Robots can show their skills.
Finally, a single solar panel may be large and heavy and difficult to handle. Robots equipped with large frame grippers can significantly reduce the cost of damage caused by damage, and can quickly recover the robot's investment.
“The robot is suitable for all types of operation for handling or transferring panels between different processes or between the production process and the storage container, QCROBOT believes. “There are many processes, including cascade, inspection, quality control and other manual operations, All can benefit significantly from robotic automation applications. ”
“The cascaded assembly and welding processes are time-consuming. Most of the stringing and marking operations are automated. “Frame assembly is another process that is less efficient for manual operation... In these respects, articulated robots are used to stabilize the application. The required pressure ensures that all fastening tools are positioned accurately and the frame is assembled in a highly reproducible manner. ”
Robots are also very suitable for the assembly of solar panels, because they can adapt to the conversion of products quickly. The industrial and civilian solar panel market is still growing rapidly, but there are few uniform standards. Therefore, different solar panel series are constantly changing or even innovating to meet current needs.
Of course, adapting the traditional automation system hardware to adapt to this change may be difficult or even impossible. However, if robotic automation technology is used, it is possible to adapt to different product specifications or structures by simply changing the program and, if possible, using a new end effector. Today's controllers and hardware technology make programs and end-effectors easier to change. The end effector is even more flexible, and the same actuator can be applied to multiple product types.
Whether it is taking a monolithic wafer or an entire panel, the robot is effective in the entire manufacturing process of the solar panel.
The QCROBOT-type robot equipped with a visual function is particularly effective in the operation of taking and placing a single solar cell wafer to prepare for assembly.
Robots are particularly useful in repetitive operations that require high precision, such as marking and tandem-connected photovoltaic cells and wafers.
“The solar industry is developing at full speed.” “The inherent flexibility of robotics technology guarantees the ability to produce quickly in small batches and makes complex product outlines possible. ”
In many cases, companies first use robots during the testing phase of new products, and then successfully apply them to the large-scale assembly process of the new product.
"Many R&D institutions need to build a pilot line to verify their theory quickly and prove to investors that they are capable of providing the specific technology they promote," he said. "When they begin to switch to mass production, they can relocate the robots to the production line ... to meet the need to expand production capacity. For those institutions where the theory fails to be verified, the used robots are also more specialized than the dedicated equipment. For a wide range of markets."
Robots are equipped with machine vision is the key to achieve this flexibility and high efficiency. In addition to performing quality checks, machine vision can also be used to help locate randomly placed wafers on a conveyor belt or to help with proper installation. It can also be used for precision welding and frame positioning. By allowing manufacturers to pre-solve expensive and time-consuming clamping operations, visually-enabled robots can help reduce costs and speed time-to-market. The program also has the same effect.
"Robot vision ... is very suitable for the manufacture of solar cells," QCROBOT said. "Visual solutions have significant cost advantages over other aspects of robotics, such as hard tools, positioners, or other component positioning methods."
"The value of solar cell products is very high, about $10 each. In addition, batteries are becoming thinner and thinner. The combination of high-value and fine materials makes it necessary to automate operations to reduce damage and scrap. Now enough robots are enough. To achieve the required operating accuracy,
"As the use of industrial robots is increasingly capable of shortening production cycles, reducing costs, increasing production, improving quality, significantly reducing medical compensation and scrap rates, and enhancing market competitiveness, (machine vision) has become one of the most important aspects. "In recent years, most manufacturers that apply this technology have achieved great success. Integrating image processing and robot control into the same logic device is a basic premise. Each function can obtain the data it needs from other functions in a matter of milliseconds at any time. Most of the complex and inflexible communication protocols required by external systems have been virtually eliminated. ”
The correct selection of robots
"QCROBOT robots are best suited for applications such as battery and wafer pick-up, conveyor tracking, high-speed pick and place, and panel assembly; SCARA is best suited for applications such as cascading fine applications and large payloads; larger 6-axis Robots are best suited for handling panels because they are very flexible and the panels are often heavy.
Solar Photovoltaic, Battery
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