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Advantages and disadvantages of the lithium ion battery
- Jun 19, 2018 -

Advantages

1) High voltage

The working voltage of the single cell battery is as high as 3.7-3.8V (3.2V for lithium iron phosphate), which is three times that of the Ni-Cd and Ni-MH batteries.

2) Larger than the energy

The actual specific energy that can be achieved is about 555Wh/kg, that is, the material can reach a specific capacity of 150mAh/g or more (3 - 4 times Ni-Cd, 2 - 3 times Ni-MH), which is close to its theory. About 88% of the value.

3) long cycle life

Generally can reach more than 500 times, or even more than 1000 times, lithium iron phosphate can reach more than 2,000 times. For small-current discharge appliances, the battery life will double the competitiveness of the appliance.

4) Good safety performance

No pollution, no memory effect. As the precursor of Li-ion lithium battery, due to the easy formation of dendrites metal lithium short circuit, reducing its application areas: Li-ion does not contain cadmium, lead, mercury and other environmental pollution elements : The main drawback of some processes (such as sintered) Ni-Cd batteries is the “memory effect”, which severely restricts the use of batteries, but Li-ion does not have this problem at all.

5) Small self-discharge

The self-discharge rate of Li-ion charged at room temperature after 1 month storage is about 2%, which is much lower than 25-30% of Ni-Cd and 30-35% of Ni-MH.

6) Fast charge

The 1C charge can reach 80% of the nominal capacity for 30 minutes, and the phosphor-iron battery can reach 90% of the nominal capacity for 10 minutes.

7) Working temperature

Operating temperature is -25~45°C. With the improvement of electrolyte and positive electrode, it is expected to widen to -40~70°C.

Disadvantages

1)    Aging

Unlike other rechargeable batteries, the capacity of lithium-ion batteries will slowly degrade, depending on the number of uses, but also with temperature. This phenomenon of decline can be expressed in terms of reduced capacity, or it can be expressed in terms of increased internal resistance.

Because of the temperature, electronic products with high operating currents are more easily represented. The replacement of graphite with lithium titanate seems to extend the life. Relationship between storage temperature and permanent loss of capacity:

lithium-ion batteries .png

 2)     Recovery rate

About 1% of new products from the factory need to be recycled for various reasons.

3)    Not tolerate overcharge

When overcharged, excessively embedded lithium ions are permanently fixed in the crystal lattice and cannot be released, resulting in a short battery life.

4)    Intolerance

During overdischarge, excessive lithium ions are desorbed from the electrode, which can cause the lattice to collapse and shorten the lifetime.